Aleppo citadel's Greater mosque.
الجامع الكبير لقلعة حلب
The history of the citadel is related to Aleppo's medieval history.
The city became part of the Byzantine Empire before falling to Arabs in 637; in the 10th century a resurgent Byzantine Empire briefly regained control from 974 to 987. Aleppo was twice besieged by Crusaders, in 1098 and in 1124, but was not conquered. It came under the control of Saladin and then the Ayyubid Dynasty from 1183 and remained in Arab hands until taken by the Mongols in 1260. Returning to native control in 1317, decades after the Battle of Ain Jalut, it became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517, when the city had around 50,000 inhabitants.
The ancient history of Aleppo
Because the modern city occupies its ancient site, Aleppo has scarcely been touched by archaeologists. The site has been occupied from around 1800 BC, as recorded in the Hittite records. It grew as the capital of the kingdom of Yamkhad until the ruling Amorite Dynasty was overthrown around 1600 BC. The city remained under Hittite control until maybe 800 BC before passing through the hands of the Assyrians and the Persian Empire and being captured by the Greeks in 333 BC, when Seleucus Nicator renamed the settlement Beroea. The city remained in Greek or Seleucid hands until 64 BC when Syria was conquered by the Romans.
The snakes' door. باب الحيات